*Things were different back in 1947*
Hi, to both Lexie and Bob,
Bob offers great information from his professional experience and view. Things were possibly a tad different in 1947 compared to 2013. Capt. Bill Judd could possibly also offer more insights from his own experience. I do know that the present big 'blue water ships' have one or more technicians/engineers in their departments dealing with fuel fumes or fumes from cargo. The U.S. Navy also follows these guide lines.

We live in a world of "what if's...possibly...could...perhaps...should have known," in hindsight. Who knows? The ISLAND QUEEN disaster was, possbily, a case of 'time and place, set and setting.' When the steamboat MOSELLE exploded her boilers with a tragic loss of life near Fulton in Cincinnati, April 25, 1838, a commetary was penned in newspapers of the day. One comment that has stuck in my mind was, "Oh, that instant!" The 'circumstances' with the MOSELLE was the result of men.

Benjamin Disraeli, England's Prime Minister during the Victorian era, wrote a fine commentary I think fits many situations similar to the ISLAND QUEEN, TITANIC, HINDENBURG, ANDREA DORIA--possibly Pearl Harbor, 1941. "Man is not the victim of circumstances. Circumstances are the 'result' of men." In this case "man and men" refering to the human species. Well, again, what do I know?

R. Dale Flick
Coal Haven Landing, Ohio River, Cincinnati.